[noo´kle-us] (pl. nu´clei) (L.)
3. in organic chemistry, the combination of atoms forming the central element or basic framework of the molecule of a specific compound or class of compounds.
nucleus ambi´guus the nucleus of origin of motor fibers of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves in the medulla oblongata.
nucleus an´sae lenticula´ris (nucleus of ansa lenticularis) a collection of neurons in the ansa lenticularis as it curves around the medial edge of the globus pallidus.
arcuate nuclei of medulla oblongata, nu´clei arcua´ti medul´lae oblonga´tae small irregular areas of gray substance on the ventromedial aspect of the pyramid of the medulla oblongata.
caudal olivary nucleus a folded band of gray substance enclosing a white core, which produces the elevation on the medulla oblongata known as the olive.
caudate nucleus (nucleus cauda´tus) an elongated, arched gray mass closely related to the lateral ventricle throughout its entire extent, which, together with the putamen, forms the neostriatum.
nucleus ceru´leus a compact aggregation of pigmented neurons lying below the locus ceruleus.
cochlear nuclei, anterior and posterior the nuclei of termination of sensory fibers of the cochlear nerve (see anatomic Table of Nerves in the Appendices); they partly encircle the inferior cerebellar peduncle at the junction of the medulla oblongata and pons.
droplet nuclei small particles of pathogen-containing respiratory secretions expelled into the air by coughing, which are reduced by evaporation to small, dry particles that can remain airborne for long periods; one possible mechanism for transmission of infection from one individual to another.
fastigial nucleus (nucleus fasti´gii) the most medial of the deep cerebellar nuclei, near the midline in the roof of the fourth ventricle.
motor nucleus any collection of cells in the central nervous system giving origin to a motor nerve.
nuclei of origin, nu´clei ori´ginis groups of nerve cells in the central nervous system from which arise the motor, or efferent, fibers of the cranial nerves.
paraventricular nucleus (nucleus paraventricula´ris) a band of cells in the wall of the third ventricle in the supraoptic part of the hypothalamus; many of its cells are neurosecretory in function and project to the neurohypophysis, where they secrete oxytocin (and, to a lesser extent, antidiuretic hormone).
pontine nuclei, nu´clei pon´tis masses of nerve cells scattered throughout the ventral part of the pons, in which the longitudinal fibers of the pons terminate, and whose axons in turn cross to the opposite side and form the middle cerebellar peduncle, which projects fibers to the neocerebellum.
nucleus pro´prius a column of large neurons that extends throughout the posterior horn of the spinal cord.
nucleus pulpo´sus (pulpy nucleus) a semifluid mass of fine white elastic fibers forming the center of an intervertebral disk.
red nucleus (nucleus ru´ber) an oval mass of gray matter (pink in fresh specimens) in the anterior part of the tegmentum and extending into the posterior part of the hypothalamus; it receives fibers from the cerebellum.
sensory nucleus the nucleus of termination of the afferent (sensory) fibers of a peripheral nerve.
supraoptic nucleus (nucleus supraop´ticus) one just above the lateral part of the optic chiasm; many of its cells are neurosecretory in function and project to the neurohypophysis, where they secrete antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and, to a lesser extent, oxytocin; other cells are osmoreceptors that stimulate ADH release in response to increased osmotic pressure.
tegmental nucleus, laterodorsal several nuclear masses of the reticular formations of the pons and midbrain, especially of the latter, where they are in close approximation to the superior cerebellar peduncles.
thoracic nucleus (nucleus thora´cicus) thoracic column.
vestibular nuclei, nu´clei vestibula´res the four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle: superior (rostral or cranial), lateral, medial, and inferior (caudal) vestibular nuclei; in them are the terminations of the branches of the vestibular nerve (see anatomic Table of Nerves in the Appendices). The nuclei give rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system through projections to motor nuclei in the brain stem and cervical cord, to the cerebellum, and to motor cells throughout the spinal cord; they also have connections that provide for conscious perception of, and autonomic reactions to, labyrinthine stimulation.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.
See also: virion. Synonym(s): karyon
See also: virion. Synonym(s): nucleoid (3)
3. In neuroanatomy, a group of nerve cell bodies in the brain or spinal cord that can be demarcated from neighboring groups on the basis of either differences in cell type or the presence of a surrounding zone of nerve fibers or cell-poor neuropil.
4. Any substance (for example, foreign body, mucus, crystal) around which a urinary or other calculus has formed.
5. The central portion of an atom (composed of protons and neutrons) where most mass and all the positive charge are concentrated.
6. A particle on which a crystal, droplet, or bubble forms.
7. A characteristic arrangement of atoms in a series of molecules; for example, the benzene nucleus is a series of aromatic compounds.
[L. a little nut, the kernel, stone of fruits, the inside of a thing, dim. of nux, nut]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012