definition of and by The Free Dictionary




A logical operator that returns a true value only if both operands are true.


 (ənd, ən; ănd when stressed)


1. Together with or along with; in addition to; as well as. Used to connect words, phrases, or clauses that have the same grammatical function in a construction.

2. Added to; plus: Two and two makes four.

3. Used to indicate result: Give the boy a chance, and he might surprise you.

4. Informal Used after a verb such as come, go, or try to introduce another verb describing the purpose of the action: come and see; try and find it. See Usage Note at try.

5. Archaic If: and it please you.


An addition or stipulation: The offer is final—no ifs, ands, or buts.


and so forth/on

1. And other unspecified things of the same class: bought groceries, went to the bank, picked up the dry cleaning, and so forth.

2. Further in the same manner.

and then some Informal

With considerably more in addition: This project will take all our skill and then some.

Usage Note: A traditional grammatical rule asserts that sentences beginning with and or but express “incomplete thoughts” and are therefore incorrect. But this stricture has been ignored by writers from Shakespeare to Joyce Carol Oates, and most of the Usage Panel sees wisdom in this attitude. In our 1988 survey, when asked whether they paid attention to the rule in their own writing, 24 percent answered “always or usually,” 36 percent answered “sometimes,” and 40 percent answered “rarely or never.” See Usage Notes at both, but, with.

American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


(ænd; unstressed ənd; ən)

conj (coordinating)

1. along with; in addition to: boys and girls.

2. as a consequence: he fell down and cut his knee.

3. afterwards: we pay the man and go through that door.

4. (preceded by: good or nice) (intensifier): the sauce is good and thick.

5. plus: two and two equals four.

6. used to join identical words or phrases to give emphasis or indicate repetition or continuity: better and better; we ran and ran; it rained and rained.

7. used to join two identical words or phrases to express a contrast between instances of what is named: there are jobs and jobs.

8. informal used in place of to in infinitives after verbs such as try, go, and come: try and see it my way.

9. an obsolete word for if: and it please you. Informal spellings: an, an’ or ‘n

(usually plural) an additional matter or problem: ifs, ands, or buts.

[Old English and; related to Old Frisian anda, Old Saxon ande, Old High German anti, Sanskrit atha]

Usage: The use of and instead of to after try and wait is typical of spoken language, but should be avoided in any writing which is not informal: We must try to prevent (not try and prevent) this happening


abbreviation for

(Placename) Andorra (international car registration)

Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014


(and; unstressedənd, ən, or, esp. after a homorganic consonant, n),

1. (used to connect grammatically coordinate words, phrases, or clauses) with; as well as; in addition to: pens and pencils.

2. added to; plus: 2 and 2 are 4.

3. then: He finished and went to bed.

4. also, at the same time: to sleep and dream.

5. (used to imply different qualities in things having the same name): There are bargains and bargains, so watch out.

6. (used to introduce a sentence, implying continuation) also; then: And he said unto Moses.

7. Informal. to (used between two finite verbs): Try and do it.

8. (used to introduce a consequence or conditional result): Say one more word and I’ll scream.

9. but; on the contrary: He tried to run five miles and couldn’t.

10. Archaic. if: and you please. Compare an 3.


11. an added condition, stipulation, or particular: no ands or buts about it.

12. Logic. the connective used in conjunction.


and so forth or so on, and the like; and more of the same; et cetera.

[before 900; Middle English; Old English and, ond; c. Old Saxon, Old High German ant, Old Frisian, Gothic and, Icelandic and-; akin to German und, Dutch en, Skt anti]

usage: Both and and but, and to a lesser extent or and so, are common as transitional words at the beginnings of sentences in all types of speech and writing: It grew dark as clouds filled the sky. And then the rains began. Any objection to this practice probably stems from the overuse of such sentences by inexperienced writers. See also and/or, et cetera, try.



a Boolean operator that returns a positive result when both operands are positive.


Random House Kernerman Webster’s College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.


And can be used to link noun phrases, adjectives, adverbs, verbs, or clauses.

1. used for linking noun phrases

When you are talking about two things or people, you put and between two noun phrases.

I had a cup of tea and a biscuit.

The story is about a friendship between a boy and a girl.

When you are linking more than two noun phrases, you usually only put and in front of the last one.

They had fish, potatoes, and peas for dinner.

We need to build more roads, bridges and airports.

In lists like these, the comma before and is optional.

2. used for linking adjectives

You put and between two adjectives when they come after linking verbs such as be, seem, and feel.

The room was large and square.

She felt cold and tired.

When there are more than two adjectives after a linking verb, you usually only put and in front of the last one.

We felt hot, tired, and thirsty.

The child is outgoing, happy and busy.

In lists like these, the comma before and is optional.

When you use two or more adjectives in front of a noun, you don’t usually put and between them.

She was wearing a beautiful pink dress.

We made rapid technological advance.

However, if the adjectives are colour adjectives, you must use and.

I bought a black and white swimming suit.

Similarly, if you are using adjectives that classify a noun in a similar way, you use and.

This is a social and educational dilemma.

You also use and when you put adjectives in front of a plural noun in order to talk about groups of things that have different or opposite qualities.

Both large and small firms deal with each other regularly.

Be Careful!
Don’t use “” to link adjectives when you want them to contrast with each other. For example, don’t say ‘We were tired and happy‘. You say ‘We were tired but happy’.

They stayed in a small but comfortable hotel.

3. used for linking adverbs

You can use and to link adverbs.

Mary was breathing quietly and evenly.

They walked up and down, smiling.

4. used for linking verbs

You use and to link verbs when you are talking about actions performed by the same person, thing, or group.

I was shouting and swearing.

They sat and chatted.

If you want to say that someone does something repeatedly or for a long time, you can use and after a verb, and then repeat the verb.

They laughed and laughed.

Isaac didn’t give up. He tried and tried.

In conversation, you can sometimes use and after try or wait instead of using a to-infinitive clause. For example, instead of saying ‘I’ll try to get a newspaper’, you say ‘I’ll try and get a newspaper’. In sentences like these you are describing one action, not two.

I’ll try and answer the question.

I prefer to wait and see how things go.

You only use and like this when you are using a future form of try or wait, or when you are using the infinitive or imperative form.

If you go and do something or come and do something, you move from one place to another in order to do it.

I’ll go and see him in the morning.

Would you like to come and stay with us?

5. used for linking clauses

And is often used to link clauses.

I came here in 1972 and I have lived here ever since.

When you are giving advice or a warning, you can use and to say what will happen if something is done. For example, instead of saying ‘If you go by train, you’ll get there quicker’, you can say ‘Go by train and you’ll get there quicker’.

Do as you’re told and you’ll be all right.

You can put and at the beginning of a sentence when you are writing down what someone said, or writing in a conversational style.

I didn’t mean to scare you. And I’m sorry I’m late.

6. leaving out repeated words

When you are linking verb phrases that contain the same auxiliary verb, you don’t need to repeat the auxiliary verb.

John had already showered and changed.

Similarly, when you are linking nouns that have the same adjective, preposition, or determiner in front of them, you don’t need to repeat the adjective, preposition, or determiner.

My mother and father worked hard.

7. “” for emphasis

When you link two phrases using and, you can emphasize that what you are saying applies to both phrases by putting both in front of the first phrase.

They feel both anxiety and joy.

8. negative sentences

You don’t normally use “” to link groups of words in negative sentences. For example, don’t say ‘She never reads and listens to stories‘. You say ‘She never reads or listens to stories’.

He was not exciting or good looking.

However, you use and when you are talking about the possibility of two actions happening at the same time. For example, you say ‘I can’t think and talk at the same time’. You also use and if two noun phrases occur so frequently together that they are regarded as a single item. For example, knife and fork are always joined by and even in negative sentences such as ‘I haven’t got my knife and fork’.

Unions haven’t taken health and safety seriously.

When two noun phrases are regarded as a single item like this, they almost always occur in a fixed order. For example, you talk about your knife and fork, not your ‘fork and knife‘.

Collins COBUILD English Usage © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 2004, 2011, 2012

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